Monday, August 29, 2016

COTTON PRODUCTION

Botanical Name:  Gossypium Spp.
VARIETIES 
i.             Allah jac
ii.           Ishan  
Gossypium hirum
Gossypium perurianium
Soil requirement: Cotton requires rich, deep loamy or clay soil but avoid planting cotton on virgin land because it results to more vegetative growth and less seed formation.
Rainfall:  150cm well distributed over 4 to 5 months
Temperature:  250c – 300c especially during maturity and drying period.
Land preparation:  Deep ploughing about 20cm deep for sole cropping. 
Planting date: Between June and July in the North
Seed rate: 15kg - 20kg per hectare 2 to 3 per hole but you can later thin to one.
Planting techniques:  Plant 4 to 6 seeds per hole at 2.5cm depth and later thin to 2 seedlings per stand.
POST PLANNING OPERATION
1.   Weeding: Weeding is carried out 3 to 4 times before maturity but the first weeding must be done along with thinning and it must be done before fertilizer application.
2.   Fertilizer application: Apply sulphate to ammonia (NH4S04) immediately after thinning or apply 125kg of super phosphate per hectare during planting.
3.   Mulching: There is need for mulching to prevent excessive water and erosion
4.   Maturity: Cotton mature between 5 – 6 months after planting
5.   Harvesting: Harvesting of cotton is done by hand picking of matured fruits between November and January and it is better harvested in the afternoon when it is dry.
COTTON CLOSE SEASON
          This is a period when cotton should no more remain on the field or soil usually mid. March and mid- June.
Yield:  500kg to 1500kg per hectare in developed world/ country and 500kg per hectare in the north
Local farming 70-150kg per hectare
Processing
Ginning: This is the removal of lints from seeds. Ginning has percentage which is  WEIGHT OF LINTS X 100
Weight of cotton seed
After grading of cotton. It is packed into unit called bales
A bale of lint is 180kg
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF COTTON (USES)
1.   It is used to manufacture textile
2.   It is a good source of planting material or it is used for planting.
3.   Oil can be extracted from cotton seed
4.   Lint is used in making pillow
5.   Cotton has medicinal uses
DISEASES AND PESTS
1.   Bacterial blights or black arm/angular spot
2.   Causative organism: bacteria
The disease only affects the vegetative part of cotton
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
It is an air-borne disease that enter into the plant through their stomata
SYMPTOMS
1.   Irregular sports on leaves and branches which can cause the death of the plant
2.   Discolouration of lints
CONTROL
1.   Treat seeds with chemical before planting
2.   Observe cotton close season
3.   Practice crop rotation

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