Monday, August 29, 2016

CROP PRODUCTION: GRAINS

Crops are classified into the following groups:
1.   Cereals/Grains: Rice, Guinea corn, Millet, Maize etc.
2.   Pulses legumes: Groundnut, Cowpea, Soya beans, Centrosema etc.
3.   Root and tuber: This can either be root or stem tuber. Examples of root and tuber include: Cassava, Sweet potato while yam is a typical stem tuber
4.   Beverages: Cocoa, Coffee, Tea etc.
5.   Spices: Ginger, Onion, Garlic, Pepper e.t.c.
6.   Oil crops: Groundnut, Oil palm, Coconut, Melon, Soya beans etc.
7.   Latex Crops: Rubber, The commercial product of latex is rubber
8.   Fibre crops: Cotton, Silk, Jute, Sisal, Kenaf
9.   Vegetables: Okra, Lattice, Garden egg, Amaranths, Cabbage etc.
10.  Fruits: Citrus, Banana, Guava, Mango, Apple
 GRAINS
Maize: Zea mays
Family: Graminae
Genus: Zea
Specie – mays
Types of maize
1.   Pod corn: (Zea mays tunicate):- It is ornamental and grown in botanical garden
2.   Soft or flour corn (Zea mays amylaceas):- This produce grains of a mixed soft and hard starch which prevents shrinking at drying, it is used for flour
3.   Pop corn (Zea mays everate):- Its endosperm explodes during heating to expose a white internal surface
4.   Flint corn Zea mays indurata):- It contains endosperm layer and does not shrink at drying
5.   Dent corn (Zea mays indentata):- It is characterized by depression in the crown of the gains, it is used mainly for starch product and livestock feed.
6.   Sweet corn: (Zea mays sacharata):- It is characterized by high sugar content; it shrinks and wrinkles at drying. It is used for human consumption e.g canning, cornflakes.
7.   Waxy corn: (Zea mays certina)
COLOUR CLASSIFICATION OF MAIZE
          According to colour, maize can be classified into two:
1.   Yellow maize:
It has a significant amount of vitamin A, protein, fats and oil arising carotene content in its pigment 
2.   White maize:                           
It contains high starch deposit; it is low in food value, quality than yellow maize.

CLIMATE AND SOIL REQUIREMENT
          It requires well drained loam or silt loam with adequate organic matter:
1.   Soil PH: Between 5.0 to 8.0
2.   Rainfall:- 60cm to 12cm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
3.   Temperature:- Between 210c to 300c
4.   Land Preparation:- Clear, plough, harrow and ridge
5.   Planting Date: Mid March to early April for early maize and July to mid September for late maize depending on rainfall.
In Northern part of Nigeria however, maize can only be planted once a year between May and June
6.   Seed rate: Two to three seeds per hole to be later thinned to one to two plants per hole two to three weeks after planting
7.   Spacing: 50cm by 80cm
i.             30cm by 90cm
ii.           45cm by 60cm
8.   Thinning/supplying: - Thinning and supplying should be carried out two to three weeks after planting.
9.       Weeding:  Use cutlass or hoe for weeding
i.             Use of hand to pull weeds
ii        Use of herbicides
10.                Manuring: Manure /fertilizer application depends on:
i.             Age of plant
ii.           Plant population
iii.          Soil fertility
However, maize requires adequate nutrients especially for high yield. N.P: K 15:15:15 can be applied two to three weeks after planting or two weeks before tasselling. Compost manure or farmyard could also be used.
11.    Maturity period: Maize matures between 10 – 14 weeks (2 ½ - 3 months)
12.    Harvesting: Harvesting of maize can be done by
i.             Hand
ii.           Use of combine harvest
iii.          Forage harvester for harvesting folders
13.    Signs of maturity: Cobs begin to lose chlorophyll turning from green to yellow or brown.
ii.           Hair drop and its pink colour turns to dark-brown 
14.    Storage: Shelled maize are stored in insect – free container e.g. Silo, drums e.t.c
ii.       Unshelled maize can be tied together and hanged in a dry place
15.    Yield: Yield of maize depends on varieties of maize that you plant
ii.       soil type/fertility
iii.      Plant population
iii.          Management
On the average, yield of maize could be between 800kg to 1000kg per acre
Use of maize
1.   Human consumption
2.   Livestock feed
3.   Extraction of corn oil (glucose syrup) in industries
4.   Maize could also be processed into various products for the use of man e.g. flour, cornflakes, pop-corn.

DISEASE OF MAIZE
1.   Maize rust (Fungal disease)
2.   Maize smut (Fungal disease)
3.   Leaf blight (Fungal disease)
4.   Downey mildew (Viral disease)
PESTS OF MAIZE
1.   Stem borer
2.   Army worm
3.   Weevils
4.   Rodents etc.



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