Monday, August 29, 2016

CROP PRODUCTION: PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA

Botanical name: Manihot spp
Varieties: There are two major varieties of cassava that are commonly grown in West African they are:  
1.   Bitter cassava – Manihot utilisima
2.   Sweet cassava- Manihot Palmata
Sweet cassava; it is mainly used for feeding animals.
Bitter cassava: It requires temperature of about 200c-310c.
Rainfall: ranges from 150cm – 200cm
Soil requirement: requires light sand, loamy soil, deep fertile well drained with organic matter
Land preparation:
1.   Clearing of the land, clearing of bushes of vegetation cover either mechanically or manually.
2.   Tilling: (Plough, Harrow, Ridge)
Propagation: cassava can only be propagated through the stem cutting, cassava stem should be planted in a slanting position at an angle of 450.
3.   Spacing:- It varies depending on land preparation. It could either be by making ridges on flat land
4.   Planting date: cassava is planted anytime during the raining season in the southern part i.e. between May and September, but in the northern part is planted between May-August.
CULTURAL PRACTICES  
1.   Weeding: Weeding can be performed once before harvesting. It is done manually, mechanically and chemically.
2.   Fertilizer application: Cassava requires N.P.K fertilizer and should be applied four weeks after planting
3.   Maturity: cassava matures between 6 months-18 months
4.   Harvesting: It can be harvested by uprooting the tubber. The tubber is dugged up from the soil.

5.   Farm level processing:
GAARI
1.   Harvesting of the cassava tuber
2.   Peeling
3.   Washing of peeled tuber
4.   Grinding/Grating
5.   Parking of grated cassava inside bag or sacks
6.   Fermentation for 2-4 days
7.   Pressing to remove toxic contents or hydro cyanic acid (HCN)
8.   Sieving
9.   Frying
10. Bagging
FLOUR
1.   Soaking of cassava tuber for 3-5 days
2.   Removal of the peels
3.   Marsh the tubers
4.   Sun drying
5.   Grinding
6.   Bagging
CHIPS
1.   Peel the cassava
2.   Cut the tubers to pieces
3.   Sun drying
4.   Grinding
5.   Bagging
PESTS AND DISEASES 
1.   Masaic (viral disease)
2.   Blight (Bacteria)
3.   Leaf spot (fungal disease)
PESTS
i.             Zonocerous varigatus (Grashopper)
ii.           Rodent
iii.          Birds

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