Monday, August 29, 2016

CROP PRODUCTION: YAM PRODUCTION

Botanical name: Dioscorea species
TYPES OF YAM
1.   White yam (Dioscorea rotundata)
2.   Water yam (Dioscorea alata)
3.   Yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis)
4.   Trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumentorum)
5.   Aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera)
6.   Chinese yam (Dioscorea exculenta)
CLIMATIC AND SOIL REQUIREMENT
Rainfall: 1000 – 1150mm evenly distributed throughout the year
Temperature: 250c to 300c
Soil requirement: A well drained, deep fertile loamy or clay soil.
Land Preparation: Clearing, ploughing, harrowing and ridging . Yam can be planted on flat ground e.g. Edo and Delta State.
Planting Date:
Early yam: October, December
Late yam: March-April
Planting Materials
Seed yam which is planted whole or cut into smaller pieces which is called sett
Spacing: 1m within role or 1m by 1m
Seed rate: 1 sett per hole
Depth of planting: 10cm below soil surface
Sett orientation: the sett should be placed in slanting form
Mulching: mulching is necessary to conserve moisture/water during the dry season. Mulching is carried out around November to March.
Staking: Is the provision of sticks for yam stems to climb
Weeding: Removal of weeds. Weeding should be carried out twice during the production period. Weeding is done manually by uprooting with hand. It is also done mechanically by the use of implements. Weeding can be done chemically by the use of chemicals e.g. herbicides.
Fertilizer application: yam requires N:P:K fertilizer. Application of fertilizer can be carried out after germination or sprouting and this can be done during the production period.
Harvesting
Maturity Period: Yam matures 8-12 months after planting. Harvesting is done by digging up the tuber from the soil by cutlass.
Farm Level Processing:
1.   Peeling and sun drying
Storage: Yam tubers can only be stored in barns. It can also be stored under ground
DISEASES OF YAM
1.   Yam mosaic (viral disease)
Yam rot (fungi disease)
PESTS OF YAM
1.   Grasshopper (zonocerus) varigatus)
Yam beetle
Rodents
Birds
USES OF YAM
1.   For human consumption
For feeding animals
For ceremonial purposes
Starch can be extracted from yam

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