Thursday, September 1, 2016

Common Terms In Animal Husbandry And Production

.   Brooding:-  The act of rearing day old chicks to 6 or 8 weeks
2.   Broiler: birds raised for meat
3.   Culling: Act of removing unproductive birds from flock
4.   Treading: Act of mating
5.   Cockerel: Young male of fowl
6.   Cock: Matured male fowl
7.   Incubation: The processing of keeping fertilized eggs at optimum temperature for chick to hatch
8.   Layer: Matured female fowl
9.   Candling: The method of testing egg fertility
Capon: Castrated adult male fowl
10.    Bull: Adult male cattle
11.    Steer:  Young castrated male cattle
12.    Heifer: Growing female cattle
13.    Calving:  the act of giving birth in cattle
14.    Billy:  Adult male goat
15.    Nanny:  Adult female goat
16.    Kid: Young goat of either sex
17.    Kidding:  Act of giving birth
18.    Boar:  Adult male pig
19.    Sew: Adult female pig
20.    Piglet:  Young pig at birth (male or female)
21.    Farrowing: Act of giving birth in piggery
22.    Duck:  Adult male rabbit
23.    Doe:  Adult female rabbit
24.    Kindling: Act of giving birth in rabbit
25.    Dairy: it is a building where milk and milk products are handled
26.    Boiler:  Fowl kept for table purpose
27.    Hen:  Adult female fowl
28.    Cock:  Adult male fowl
29.    De-worming:  Act of getting rid of worm
30.    De-beaking:  This is the act of cutting the beak with a sharp object and press it with hot iron to prevent bleeding. De-beaking is done to prevent.
a.       Cannibalism:  This is the act of killing and eating one another and it is common with the animals that are not properly fed
b.       To prevent pecking: this is the act of destroying eggs laid by fowl themselves or that is laid by another fowl.
31.     Incubator: it is an artificial device used to hatch fertilized egg
32.     Brooding: is the act of raising chicks from a day old to four weeks of age under a special condition of temperature humidity and environment. There are two types of brooding:
i.             Artificial brooding
ii.           Natural brooding




ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMALS
ANATOMY
Anatomy is the study of the structure of different organs of the body of an animal
PHYSIOLOGY
Physiology deals with the functioning of these organs in the body of an animal.
A good knowledge of anatomy and physiology is a good insurance in management of farm animals.
ANIMAL REPRODUCTION TERMS
1.   Heat period: it is a period of desire when female animal receives the male
Characteristics
a.    Reddening or swollen vulva
b.   Slimming discharge from the vulva which at times may be mixed up with blood
c.    Frequent urination
d.   Wagging of trail
e.    Restlessness
f.     Mounting and being mounted
2.    Mating:  Mating is the coming together of male and female animals in sexual intercourse
3.   Service:  It is a term used to describe mating in cattle, sheep, goat and pig. In fowl topping is used. Treading is used in duck.
4.   Heat Repeat: This is when an animal comes on heat at specific interval depending on the type of animal if not served or service does not hold.   
5.   Heat Return: This is when an animal comes on heat 3 to 4 weeks after parturition.
6.   Parturition: is the act of giving birth to young one in farm animal. In cattle, it is called calving while in pig it is called farrowing in rabbit, it is called kindling.
7.   Lactation: it is a period of nursing and feeding the young one with breast milk
8.   Colostrums: it is the milk produced by the mother animal in the first to third day after parturition. It is yellowish in colour and has a sour taste.
IMPORTANT OF COLOSTRUM
a.    It has a laxative effect which allow the young one to pass out the first faeces know as foetal dung
b.   It contains antibiotic which gives the animals active immunity. An active immunity is the type of immunity that is built within the animal body. It is also called natural immunity. A passive immunity is the one built throughout the use of drug.
9.           Gestation period: It is the period between conception and birth or period between fertilization and birth. It is simply known as period of pregnancy.
Animals
Gestation period
Pig (sew) (female pig)
116 days (3 months 3 weeks 3 days)
Ewe (female sheep)
147 days
cow
283 days
Rabbit (doe)
1 month

10.        Oestrus cycle:  it is the interval from the end of one heat period to the beginning of another period
Animals
Oestrus cycle 
cow
20-21 days
Ewe
17-21 days
Goat (doe)
17-21 days
Sew
14-28 day
Rabbit (doe)
Erratic



REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS
There are two types of reproduction:
a.    Sexual reproduction
b.   A sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction involves the coming together of male and female animal in sexual intercourse to produce an offspring and there are two groups of animals that are of agricultural importance. They are:
a.    Mammal
b.   Birds  
MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN
The most important part of the male reproductive organs are the two test  which produce the spermatozoa. The spermatozoa is the male reproductive sex cell needed for fertilization. It is produced under a constant temperature of about 33-340c. This spermatozoa becomes concentrated and matured after 7-9 days in the epidydimis. The epidydimis is the part of the man reproduction organ from where the sperm is transport through the sperm duct to the uterus masculinus for further maturity and ready for ejaculation.
The uterus masculinus and the bladder both opens in a common duct the urethra, this allows both urine and sperm to pass through. Other necessary sex glands are cowpers gland, prostate gland e.t.c They produce seminal fluid which mixes with the sperm to form semen. The fluid which mixes with the sperm to form semen helps to clear urine which is toxic to the sperm or the semen that can kill it. 
 
FEMALE REPRODUCTION ORGAN
This is different from male reproduction organ because it is located inside the body cavity except the vulva. The female reproductive organ consist of ovaries and tubular genitalia.
This later consists of fallopian tube, vagina, vestibule, vulva e.t.c

OVARIES
They produce the female reproductive cell (egg or ova). The production of eggs begins before birth but the appearance of ovary depends on egg, stages of reproductive cycle and the type of animal. The ovary remains in the cell until puberty when it begins to develop.


PUBERTY
It is a stage in animal development when physiological changes relating to reproduction begin to appear in female animal, such changes include:
1.   Egg development
2.   Ovulation
3.   Heat behavior e.t.c
In male animal, the changes include:
1.   Formation of spermatozoa
2.   Growing urge to meet female animal
3.   Development of necessary sex organs
REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES
Hormones are chemical substances produced by organs of the body of an animal and they help to speed up or hasten physiological processes, they include the following:
1.   Testoterone: It is produced by the seminiferrus tubular or the cell of the testes. This hormone stimulates the development of male secondary sexual characteristics. It also helps in the transportation of spermatozoa, protein synthesis and nitrogen retention.
2.   Oestrogen: It is produced by the follicle formed by germinal epithelium of the ovary. It also stimulates the formation of female secondary sexual characteristics. It also increase blood supply and water content in the uterus. It increases the secretion of mucor in the whole reproductive tract. It also stimulates the growth of mammary gland.
3.   Oxytoxin: Oxytoxin promotes the sperm transportation in the female reproductive tract. It also helps in the contraction of wall of the uterus at labour. It can also help in the release of milk from the mammary gland.
4.   Relaxin: Relaxin is produced by the ovary and it causes the relaxation of the pelvic ligament at the time to parturition.
5.   Luteinizing hormoene: It causes the rapture of the follicle and subsequent release of ova that is ovulation. It also stimulates the secretion of hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone.
6.   Progesterone/pregnancy hormone: It ensures the development of the uterus and implantation of the fertilized ovum. It causes the development of the alveoli in the mammary gland. It ensures the continuity of the pregnancy.
Assignment
1.   State five similarities between reproduction in birds and mammals
2.   In a tabular form, state five differences each between the reproduction in birds and mammals.          
Process of Reproduction
          There are three types of mating:
1.   Pasture Mating: Pasture mating is done at random in the field as the need arises.
2.   Hand Mating: It is a type of mating that is controlled
Pasture mating and hand mating are examples of natural mating.
3.   Artificial insemination: This involves the introduction of semen into the reproductive tract of a female animal by man with a special instrument called inseminator.
ADVANTAGES
i.             It is cheaper to import semen or sperm than the male animal
ii.           The sperm collected can be used to fertilize many female animals of various sizes
iii.          It is more economical as it reduces the cost of feeding and management of male animal
iv.          Sperm or semen can be used over a long time even after the death of the male animal
After mating, fertilization occurs half way down the oviduct. Fertilization is the fusion or union of male and female gametes to form a zygote. Thereafter, the zygote enters the uterus and attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. This is called IMPLANTATION. By this time, zygote has developed into an embryo consisting of the number of cells which later arrange themselves into:-
i.             The endoderm
ii.           The mesoderm
iii.          The ectoderm
These differentiated cells undergo rapid cells division to form the tissues and organs of the body
1.   The Ectoderm: The ectoderm develops to form the skin and the nervous system.
2.   The Ectoderm: The mesoderm develops to form the muscles, blood, bone and connecting tissue.
3.   The Ectoderm: The endoderm develops to form the gut or alimentary canal. This development will continue until a new individual is formed. The new embryo will be enclosed inside a membrane called amnio that contains amniotic fluid the amino is in turn surrounded by a membrane called chorion. The urinary bladder enlarges to form the allantois that is filled with the urine of the foetus. This membrane allows or keeps the temperature of the foetus warn and prevent mechanical injury.
FEEDING OF THE EMBRYO
The placenta through the umblical cord form a link between the mother and the developing embryo. Dissolved food nutrients from the mother’s blood diffuse through the placenta to the developing embryo. The oxygen in the mother’s blood also diffuses into the blood circulatory system of the foetus. The oxygen is then used inside the cells to break down food substances to release energy for the use of the embryo or of the foetus. The resultant waste product of the metabolism diffuses back into the mother’s blood where they are eliminated.
ABORTION
If the foetus is ejected before completing its development an abortion or premature birth is said to have occurred.
PARTURITION
Parturition marks the end of pregnancy and it is the release of young animal from the mother’s womb to the outside world or the act of giving birth to an offspring. The preparatory stage is called labour and the following are signs of  approaching parturition:
1.   Restlessness
2.   Pain
3.   Sagging under (flapping breast)
4.   Secretion of milky fluid by the mammary gland
5.   Redness and enlarged vulva
6.   Animal seek seclusion
The wall of the abdomen and the uterus contracts to force the foetus and placenta against the cervix thereby breaking the water bag. As this contraction continues the foetus is expelled through the birth canal and it is followed shortly after wall by the placenta.
EGG FORMATION
          Unlike mammal, hen has one functioning ovary. The organ in which egg is formed is called ovary and the oviduct. A typical ovary is situated at the left hand side of the body of a hen. Ovary can be seen as a yellowish clusters of cell of various sizes, have the shape of a grape. Each ovum is attached to ovary by a slender stalk that is called follicle stalk and enclosed in a thin membrane called vitallile. The ovum and its vitallile membrane are in turn enclosed in a thin envelop called follicle.
MECHANISM OF EGG FORMATION
As a result of external stimuli the anterior and posterior section of the pituitary gland are stimulated to produce three hormones namely:
1.    Follicle stimulating hormone
2.   Luteinizing hormone
3.   Lactogenic hormone
FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE
1.       It causes growth and maturation of the ovary
2.       Luthelisign hormone: It causes ovulation in birds
3.       Lactogenic hormone: It causes broodiness
During ovulation, the yoke rupture along the line where there is no blood vessel called suture line or stigma. The yoke is grabbed by the mouth of the oviduct and passes through the rest of the oviduct by a peristaltic action of the wall of the oviduct. If the hen had previously mated, sperm cell will be present in the oviduct and fertilization takes place in the funnel region.
As the yolk passes through the oviduct various parts of the egg are added as follows:
1.   Magnum: in the magnum, the yolk spends three hours and in the magnum it acquires the mass of thick white or albumen which makes up about half of the total egg. Chalaza is also acquired in the magnum.  
2.   Isthmus: This is where the egg membrane is secreted and the shape of the egg is determined in the isthmus.
3.   Uterus (Shell gland): The yoke spends 18-20hrs in the uterus and this is where it spends the longest time at the end the remainder of the white egg (albumen) is added. The egg is also shelled up. Pigment is also secreted and bloom which is the moist antisceptic substance covering newly laid egg.
4.   Vagina: In the vagina the egg spends between 10-15 minutes before it is passed into the rectum where bacteria action is prevented. From the rectum it is passed on the cloaca where the egg is expelled and laid through the vent.
MAMMARY GLAND
          The mammary gland differs in farm animals, for example: there are glands in sheep and goat, four glands, in cattle and twelve to thirteen gland in pig, dog and rat. A fully matured udder is covered outside by skin and consist of the component parts.
1.   Alveoli: In the alveoli, the milk is synthesized and secreted and it is also called the store house of milk.
2.   Duct system: This is the passage way of milk and the milk is ejected from the alveoli when the cell is contracted.


THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
`Basically, there are two types of digestive system in farm animal they are:
1.   Digestive System In Ruminant: The main characteristics of this group is the possession of complicated stomach which is divided into four units i.e. Rumen, Reticulum, Omasum and Abomasum which is the true stomach. Examples of animals in this category are goat, sheep and cattle which are otherwise called animals that chew cud.
2.   Digestive System Non-ruminant: Animals that are in this group include birds. They have simple or single stomach which explains why they feed on low fibre feeds.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF A RUMINANT ANIMAL
The physiology of digestion in ruminant animal is directed into four parts i.e.
1.   Rumen
2.   Reticulum
3.   Omasum
4.   Abomasums
The rumen and reticulum contain several bacteria and other micro organisms i.e. (yeast and protozoan) which are capable of digesting cellulose and fibrous feed such as grasses, paper and cotton by the process of fermentation giving sugar and fatty acid as their bye products.
          The grasses are taking in through the mouth and passes through the oesophagus to enter into the first stomach, rumen where digestion of cellulose takes place, the animal also store a lot of undigested grass in this compartment. Consequently the animal lays down and by anti-peristaltic movement of the stomach the undigested grasses or cud passes from the rumen to the reticulum from where it re-enters the oestophagus and finally gets back to the mouth for re-mastication.
This time the semi-liquid goes into the third chamber (omasum) and then to the last chamber (Abomasum) where gastric juice is secreted into the semi-digested food or feed called chime. The chime then passes through the duodenum and it passes into the intestine where complete digestion and absorption takes place. The undigested material passes through the anus as dung.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF A NON-RUMINANT ANIMAL (FOR BIRDS)
          Birds are generally referred to as monogastric animal because they have single or simple, stomach. The food is taken in by toothless beak and passes through the aesophagus and lowered into a sackline material that is called the crop which serves as a temporary storage organ and it enables the animal to feed for a longer period. The digestive system in birds is characterized by two chambers namely proventiculus which secrets the gastric juice for adequate moistening of the feed before it is passed into the second chamber called the Gizzard. The gizzard is heavily rigged with high muscular feature that enhances a mechanical grinding or turning of the food or feed consequently the grinded feed is passed into the duodenum and small intestine where further digestion and absorption of food takes place. This is later passed into the rectum or large intestine for an onward transmission or passage to the caecum where absorption of moisture takes place. The undigested food or feed are removed from the tract as faeces through the cloaca.  
THE STOMACH
The stomach of the bird consist of two parts, the first part is the proventiculus or glandular stomach which is thin walled. It secrets gastric juice to moisten the food or feed and pass it on to the second chamber known as the gizzard.
THE GIZZARD
          The gizzard is thin walled and heavily rigged. Inside the gizzard the food undergoes a lot of muscular contraction and relaxation before it is grinded into a fine pasty mass. This process is aided by pebbles and stones which are contained in the gizzard.
THE SMALL INTESTINE   
The first of this is the duodenum which receives the bye-salt produced by the liver, the pancreatic juice produced by the pancreas.

THE LARGE INTESTINE
In the large intestine, watery re-absorption continues
CAECUM
This is between large intestine and small intestine and they are concerned with the digestion of fibrous feed or material i.e. cellulose and they are also responsible for absorption of water.
VENT/CLOACA
This is responsible for the expulsion of faces material or the waste material

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF RUMINANT AND NON-RUMINANT

Ruminant
Non-ruminant
1
Possession of complex stomach
Possession of simple stomach
2
Ability to digest fibrous feed material
Inability to digest fibrous feed material except simple sugar such as grains, tuber
3
Ability to synthesize protein required by the body 
They are usually supplied by feed containing protein at required quantity
4
Digestion is added by bacteria
Digestion is not added by bacteria



RESPIRATION IN MAMMALS
Farm animals require energy for various metabolic functions. Essentially, respiration is a catabolic process that involves breaking down of glucose or simple sugar to liberate energy from the oxygen that is breathe in or inhalation. carbonIVoxide and water are produced as waste products.
C6H12062+602                  6C02+6H20+ energy
The lung is a respiratory organ which is enclosed in the thorax of the farm animal. It is lined with blood vessel and mass of little thin wall sack called Alveoli which leads to Bronchiole which in turn leads to Bronchi that is connected to the inside through trachea.
INHALATION (Breathing in)
This occurs when the thoracic cavity enlarges by the contraction of the diaphram and the ribs are raised up to draw in  air (oxygen) into the lungs. The oxygen from the air sack diffuses into the capillary, from it, it is transported by the blood to the living tissues.
EXHALATION (Breathing out)
In this process the thoracic cavity decreases and the diaphram fastens out and the ribs are lowered to removed carbonIVoxide and water from the lung.

RESPIRATION IN BIRDS
Birds have thin lungs which are supplemented with four pairs of air sack and one single air sack. The air sacks are:
1.   The abdominal air sack
2.   The intercavilar air sack
3.   The cervical air sack
4.   The anterior and posterior air sack
The lungs are active while the sacks are passive in respiratory exchange. The air sacks connect the bones to the ribs, to the legs, thoracic and cervical vertebra. Their bones are hollow and they are connected to the air sack and make the birds tight and buoyant which helps the birds to fly.

BLOOD CIRCULATION IN FARM ANIMALS
The blood is made up of liquid plasma which contains a mixture of blood cells, the plasma is a pale yellowish liquid that is mainly water. It contains many dissolved substances such as plasma protein, antibodies, hormones, enzymes, dissolved gases, salts, digested food materials and waste products of metabolism. The blood cells are made up of:
1.   Red blood cells (Erythrocytes):
2.   White blood cells (Leucocytes)
3.   Platelets
RED BLOOD CELLS
The inside of the red blood cells is completely filled with an oxygen carrying pigment called hemoglobin, adult red blood cell has no nucleus its main function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
They are larger than the red blood cells and they have nucleus. They also help in fighting disease attack in the body.
PLATELETS
They are tiny irregular cell fragments which do not contain nucleus, they produce an important factor which initiates the blood clotting process
FUNCTIONS OF THE BLOOD
1.   Transportation of oxygen, carbonIVoxide, urea, digested food and hormones.
2.   Heat distribution or temperature control
3.   It helps to fight against diseases
4.   It minimizes loss of blood through clotting
PARTS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
1.   Arteries: These are thick walled vessels that carry blood under pressure from the heart to all parts of the body. The largest of them is the aorta. Each artery divides the small hair-like vessels called capillary. All arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart except the pulmonary artery which carried deoxygenated blood. 
2.   Veins: They are blood vessels which returns deoxygenated blood from  other parts of the body to the heart. The pulmonary vein is an exception because it carries oxygenated from the heat.
3.   capillaries
PROCESS/MECHANISM OF BLOOD CIRCULATION
The heat brings about two types of circulation that occur simultaneously
1.   Systemic circulation
2.   Pulmonary or lung circulation
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
This is the movement of oxygenated blood from the heart through the aorta to all parts of the body and subsequent return of deoxygenated blood into the heat for pulmonary purification in it, oxygenated blood leaves the heat through the left auricles or return to the left ventricle. The left ventricle then pumps it to the aerta to supply all parts of the body. 

PULMONARY OR LUNGS CIRCULATION
This carries deoxygenated blood to and from the lungs for the renewal of oxygen. It begins from the right ventricle of the heat through the pulmonary artery to the lungs for oxygenation and back through the pulmonary vein to the left auricle. The liver is the only organ that receives double supply of blood.
EXCRETORY SYSTEM
The following are excretory organs and their waste products
1.   Liver: bile as a  waste product 
2.   Kidney: urine as a waste product
3.   The Lungs: CarbonIVoxide
4.   Skin: sweat

FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
1.   It helps in the regulation of blood sugar
2.   It helps in the fat metabolism
3.   It helps in the formation of bile
4.   Maintenance of body heat
5.   It helps in the manufacturing of plasma protein
6.   It helps in the storage of vitamin B

FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEY
1.   For excretion
2.   For removal of excess glucose
3.   For maintenance of acid/base balance
4.   For osmo-regulation of the body
FUNCTION OF THE SKIN
The skin is the outermost layer of the mammalian body. It contains both living and death cells and each of them has its own function. Nerves and other needed blood vessels are also present in the skin.
Functions
1.   For protection: The layers of the cell of the skin is for a continuous bacteria for harmful micro organism, reduction of water loss by evaporation from the body cells.
2.   For sensitivity: The skin is sensitive to touch, pressure, heat, cold, pain e.t.c that is the skin is sensitive to external stimuli.
3.   For temperature control: Warm blood regulation as a body system that is temperature being constant. Heat losts and gain through graduate correction, evaporation, etc.
4.     For excretion of waste products
5.   Production of vitamin D
6.   Production of milk in female animals
7.   For storage of preserved food
Write short notes on the lungs and their functions
          The lung is located in the thoracic cavity. The atmospheric oxygen passes through the nostrils, the pharynx, larynx, or voice box bronchi and to the lungs. The movement of oxygen through these organs family terminates in the alveoli where exchange of gases like oxygen and carbonIVoxide take place.
FUNCTIONS
1.   It supplies oxygen to the body cells
2.   It helps to reduce heat load in the body
3.   It removes carbonIVoxide from the body
It promotes gaseous exchange

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