Thursday, September 29, 2016

FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL FORMATION


There are five major factors of soil formation. These factors are responsible for the nature and composition of soil. They include climate, parent material (parent rocks) living organism, topography, time.
CLIMATE
Climate elements that affect soil formation are rainfall, temperature. Any location with high rainfall and temperature usually have a deeper and richer top soil more than a place with low rainfall and temperature. This is so because under high temperature and rainfall micro-organisms that decomposed materials are quite active.
PARENT MATERIAL/ROCK
The type of rock from which a particular soil is formed determines the type of soil to be formed. If the parents material is acidic (parental the soil that will be found from it will be acidic and if it is alkaline the soil that will be formed from it will equally be alkaline.
LIVING ORGANISM
Living organism includes micro and macro organisms which decompose organic matter to form parts of the soil and macro organisms breaks down the rocks as well.
TOPOGRAPHY
The slope of land is an important factor in soil formation because it encourage run off (erosion) which retard the development of the soil.
TIME
This refers to the length of period for which parent rock has been exposed to soil formation processes. The longer any rock is exposed to soil formation processes the more it takes the shape of a physical soil.     

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