Thursday, September 1, 2016

PEPPER

Botanical name:  Capsicum spp
Pepper is a spice crop which adds flavor to our stew and soup. 
 Pepper can be used when green or red; it is rich in vitamins and minerals. It belongs to the family selonaceae.
VARIETIES OF PEPPER
Sweet pepper – capsicum annum
Chilli pepper – capsicum frutescens
CLIMATE REQUIREMENT
Temperature: 150c - 270c
Rainfall: 100cm – 150cm per annum
SOIL REQUIREMENT
Rich well drained loamy soil
Propagation: seed
Planting date: nursery – February to March
TRANSPLANTING TO THE FIELD
April to May
Spacing: 60cm by 60cm
NURSERY PRACTISE
1.   Seeds are drilled in seed boxes or trays containing top soil.
2.   Shade is provided
Watering is done every morning and evening
PLANTING
1.   Weeding: Weeding is done regularly
2.   Fertilizer Application: Apply ammonium sulphate by right method at 100kg per hectare


MATURITY
Pepper matures 2-3 months after transplanting, pepper can be harvested either ripe or unripe with hand or knife.
USE
Used for food
Storage: Dried fruits are stored in sacks and kept in a warm place.
Pests of Pepper: Crickets and grasshopper eat the leaves
Control: Spray with insecticides
DISEASES OF PEPPER
i.             Leaf spot
ii.           Damping off
iii.          Leaf curl
i.        Leaf spot: Caused by a fungus
Symptoms: include spotting of leaves of young  plant
Resulting in decay of flowers and leaves
Control: spray with insecticides
ii.       Damping off: fungal disease spread by water
Symptoms: wither gradually and dry off
Control: seeds should not be sown very close to each other
Spray with copper fungicides
iii.      Leaf curl:   i)      Wrinkling of the leaves
                                      ii.       Stunted growth
Control:      i)       Spray with insecticides
                             ii)      Uproot and burn infected plant
                              iii)     Practice crop rotation.

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