Problems And Solutions Of Agricultural Development In Nigeria

Agriculture in Nigeria has not developed beyond the level at which it is now because of some problems militating against its development which include:-

1.   Inadequate land/land tenure system:  As a result of increase in population the amount of land available for farming (Commercial Farming) has drastically reduce.

This is because the land is used in building houses, schools, road hospitals etc, for the increasing population. This has reduced agricultural production.



2.   Inadequate Finance/Credit Facilities: Majority of the farmer do not have the huge amount of money that is required for commercial farming and it is difficult to get loan from the banks because of the high interest rate which is not profitable for agriculture and the collateral security that is required.




So farmers now practice subsistence farming which makes it difficult to provide enough agricultural produce for the nation.

3.   Poor Transportation Network: Farmers find it difficult to transport their produce from the point of production (farm) to the point of sale because of poor transportation network.

The roads that link the farm to the market are bad, only few transporters can afford to ply these roads.

 Therefore majority of the produce get spoilt without getting to the market because of poor transportation network.

4.   Poor storage and processing facilities: Farmers sell almost all their produce immediately after production.

This is because there are no adequate storage facilities and they cannot be processed into other products because of inadequate processing facilities.

This leads to a situation whereby food cannot be made available throughout the year and it results into high prices for the few that is available.

5.   Inadequate farm input:  Most of the farm inputs are imported therefore farmers cannot afford to buy them for use because of the high cost.

These had greatly reduced agricultural production; some of these inputs are not available at the right time when they can be used for production.

6.   Inadequate Basic Amenities/Infrastructure: Basic amenities/Infrastructure such as electricity, pipe born water, good road, health care centre, communication facilities e.tc. are not available in the rural areas where agricultural production is taking place. Hence, farmers are moving from rural areas to urban centres which reduces agricultural production.

7.   Poor Marketing System: There is no organized/structure marketing channels for goods that are produced by farmers, middlemen offer low prices at farm gates and they sell at exorbitant prices to consumer thereby making the greater percentage of the profit.

8.  Problems/Outbreak of pests and diseases: There is always outbreak of pests and diseases which farmers find difficult to prevent and control, this leads to loss of crops and animals

9.   Illiteracy: Majority of our farmers cannot read nor write, this drastically affects their production.

10. Inadequate Extension Work

The ratio of farmers to extension workers is very low and this affects agricultural production.

11.  Inconsistent government policies on Agriculture: Agricultural policies put in place by the government suffer set back whenever new  people comes into power.

This set back causes lot of problem for farmers and reduces their productivity.

SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO AGRICULTURAL PROBLEMS

1.   Inadequate Land: Government should enforce the provisions of the land use act of 1978 to help farmers acquire more land.

2.   Inadequate finance and credit facilities:  Government should ensure that loans are given to farm at low interest rate.

3.   Poor Transportation: Government and non- governmental organizations should construct more motorable roads that will link the rural areas to the urban centres and maintain the existing ones.

4.   Inadequate processing facilities: Government and able non-governmental organization should provide storage and processing facilities for farmers use either free of charge or at highly subsidized rate.

5.   Inadequate Farm Input:  Government and able non-governmental organizations should make farm inputs available to farmers at highly subsidized rate

6.   Inadequate Basic amenities:  Government and able non governmental organizations should provide basic amenities in the rural areas for farmers use.

7.   Poor Marketing System: Government should set up marketing boards to ensure good prices for farm produce.

8.   Problems of Pests and Diseases: Government should strengthen the appropriate agencies for effective control of pests and diseases.

9.   There should be provision of irrigation facilities for use on farmers

10.      Illiteracy: Government should organize adult literacy programme for the farmers so that they will be able to read and write.

11.      Problems of Extension Workers:  More extension workers should be employed by the government so as to guide farmers in their production.

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