The History And How Podcasting Using RSS Works

Pod casting is a method of publishing audio broadcasts via the internet, and allowing users to subscribe to a feed of new files (usually MP3s).  


Pod casting enables independent producers to create self-published, syndicated "radio shows," and gives broadcast radio programs a new distribution method. 





Listeners may subscribe to feeds using "pod catching" software (a type of aggregator), which periodically checks for and downloads new content automatically.


Some pod catching software is also able to synchronize (copy) pod casts to portable music players. 

Any digital audio player or computer with audio-playing software can play pod casts. 

 The same technique can deliver video files, and by 2005 some aggregators could play video as well as audio.


Creating your own podcasts is a terrific way of advertising your business online for free. 

This is especially true because of its viral nature and if you tap on networks like iTunes, then your results can be very good.


Pod casting is a method of publishing audio broadcasts via the Internet, allowing users to subscribe to a feed of new files (usually MP3s).


It became popular in late 2004, largely to automate downloading of audio onto portable players or personal computers.


The word "pod casting" is a portmanteau that combines the words "broadcasting" and "iPod."

It became popular in late 2004, largely to automate downloading of audio onto portable players or personal computers. 

The word "pod casting" is a portmanteau that combines the words "broadcasting" and "iPod."


The term can be misleading since neither pod casting nor listening to pod casts requires an iPod or any portable music player. 

For that reason, since September 2004 various writers have suggested reinterpreting the letters POD to create "Bacronyms" such as "Personal On-Demand." However, the word is rarely presented as "POD casting."


Pod casting is distinct from other types of online media delivery because of its subscription model, which uses the RSS 2.0 XML (or RDF XML) format to deliver an enclosed file.


The term can be misleading since neither pod casting nor listening to pod casts requires an iPod or any portable music player.

 For that reason, since September 2004 various writers have suggested reinterpreting the letters POD to create "backronyms" such as "Personal On-Demand." However, the word is rarely presented as "POD casting."


Pod casting is distinct from other types of online media delivery because of its subscription model, which uses the RSS 2.0 XML (or RDF XML) format to deliver an enclosed file.


Pod casting enables independent producers to create self-published, syndicated "radio shows," and gives broadcast radio programs a new distribution method.


Listeners may subscribe to feeds using "pod catching" software (a type of aggregator), which periodically checks for and downloads new content automatically.


Some pod catching software is also able to synchronize (copy) pod casts to portable music players. Any digital audio player or computer with audio-playing software can play pod casts.


The same technique can deliver video files, and by 2005 some aggregators could play video as well as audio.


Initial development


By 2003, web radio had existed for a decade, digital audio players had been on the market for several years, blogs and broadcasters frequently published MP3 audio online, and the RSS file format was widely used for summarizing or syndicating content.


While RSS/RDF already supported media resources implicitly, applications rarely took advantage of this.


In 2001 User Land founder and RSS evangelist Dave Winer, partly inspired by users like Adam Curry and Tristan Louis, added support for a specific enclosure element to User land’s non-RDF branch of RSS, then to its Radio User land feed-generator and aggregator.


In June 2003, Dion Mellor demonstrated aggregation and syndication of audio files using RSS in his Ed Radio application. 

Ed Radio scanned RSS feeds for MP3 files, collected them into a single feed, and made the result available as SMIL or WebJay audio feeds.


In September 2003, Winer created an RSS-with-enclosure feed for his Harvard Berkman Center colleague Christopher Lydon, a former newspaper and television journalist and NPR radio talk show host.


For several months Lydon had been linking full-length MP3 interviews to his Berkman weblogs, which focused on blogging and coverage of the 2004 U.S. presidential campaigns. 

Having Lydon's interviews as RSS enclosures helped inspire Adam Curry's pre-iPodder script, and related experiments leading to a variety of open source iPodder development.


Indeed, blogs would become an important factor in the popularization of pod casting before many professional radio broadcasters and entrepreneurs with business plans adopted the form.


Possibly the first use of the term pod casting was as a synonym for audio Blogging or weblog-based amateur radio in an article by Ben Hamersley in The Guardian on February 12, 2004.


In September of that year, Dannie Gregoire used the term to describe the automatic download and synchronization idea that Adam Curry had developed. 

Gregoire had also registered multiple domain names associated with pod casting. That usage was discovered and reported on by Curry and Dave Slusher of the Evil Genius Chronicles website.


By October 2004, detailed how-to pod cast articles had begun to appear online. By July 2005, a Google search for "'how to' +pod cast" returned 2,050,000 hits.

Independently of the development of Pod casting and its distribution via RSS, an idea that resembles Pod casting was developed at Compaq Research as early as 1999 or 2000.


Called PocketDJ, it would have been launched as a service for the Personal Jukebox or a proposed successor, the first hard-disk based MP3-player, that Compaq's  department had started developing in 1998. 

Popularization


The word about pod casting rapidly spread through the already-popular weblogs of Winer, Curry and other early pod casters and pod cast-listeners. 

Fellow blogger and technology columnist Doc Searls began keeping track of how many "hits" Google found for the word "pod casts" on September 28, 2004, when the result was 24 hits.


"A year from now," he wrote, "it will pull up hundreds of thousands, or perhaps even millions."


Searls kept track of the search results in his blog through the next month. There were 526 hits for "pod casts" on September 30, then 2,750 three days later. The number doubled every few days, passing 100,000 by October 18.


His prediction of "perhaps millions" in a year proved to be quite conservative. After only nine months, a search for "pod casts" produced more than 10 million hits.


The amateur pod casts themselves were harder to count, but there were enough to capture the attention of The New York Times on October 28, 2004.


"There are pod casters in California, South Carolina and Connecticut," Times reporter Cyrus Farivar wrote, "with others as far afield as western Canada, Australia and Sweden. 

Though most pod casts tend to reflect their technologically oriented audience, newer shows are being created with topics like veganism and movie reviews.


Even conventional broadcasters are being drawn to the medium, which allows programs to be played at a listener's convenience."


When USA Today took on the subject of these "free amateur chatfests" with a pair of stories the following February, it profiled several pod casters, gave instructions for both sending and receiving pod casts, and included a "Top Ten" list from one of the many pod cast directories that had sprung up in just six months.


The newspaper quoted one directory as listing 3,300 pod cast programs in February, 2005. At that time, USA Today reported a circulation of 2.6 million, the largest of any paper in the United States. 

The story of pod casting was getting around.


The Top Ten programs mentioned at that time gave some indication of pod cast topics: four were about technology (including Curry's "Daily Source Code," which also included music and personal chat), three were about music, one about movies, one about politics, and -- at the time No. 1 on the list -- "The Dawn and Drew Show," described as "married-couple banter," a program format that USA Today's Marco R. della Cava noted was quite popular on American broadcast radio in the 1940s.


While USA Today was good at recalling the past, its story was less successful about the near future: It predicted that Apple Computer was "in a prime position to make pod casting significantly easier — but probably won't."

 Della Cava said Apple had "ignored requests from Curry and other technologists to discuss the matter, and declined USA TODAY's interview requests for this story."


In June, 2005, Apple added pod casting to its iTunes music software, staking a claim to the new medium its iPod had helped inspire and name. (See Coping With Growth, below.)


Adoption by traditional broadcasters


Traditional broadcasters were extremely quick to pick up on the pod casting format, especially those whose news or talk formats spared them the complications of music licensing.


The American syndicated radio show Web Talk Radio became the first to adopt the format, in September 2004, followed within weeks by Seattle news radio station KOMO and by individual programs from KFI Los Angeles and Boston's WGBH.


The BBC began a trial in October 2004 with BBC Radio Five Live's Fighting Talk. 

These trials were extended in January 2005 to BBC Radio 4's In Our Time. January 2005 also saw CBC begin a trial with its technology show /Nerd. United States National Public Radio affiliates WNYC and KCRW adopted the format for many of their productions.


In April 2005 the BBC announced it was extending the trial to twenty more programmes, including music radio and in the same month Australia's ABC launched a pod casting trial across several of its national stations.


In May, 2005, the trend began to go the other way, with amateur pod casts becoming a source of content for broadcast radio programs by Adam Curry, Christopher Lydon and others.


Coping with growth


While podcasting's innovators took advantage of the sound-file synchronization feature of Apple Computer's iPod and iTunes software -- and included "pod" in the name -- the technology was always compatible with other players and programs.


Apple was not actively involved until mid-2005, when it joined the market on three fronts: as a source of "podcatcher" software, as publisher of a pod cast directory, and as provider of tutorials on how to create pod casts with Apple products GarageBand and Quicktime Pro.


The pod casting selection views of iTunes 4.9


When it added a pod cast-subscription feature to its June 28, 2005, release of iTunes 4.9, Apple also launched a directory of pod casts at the iTunes Music Store, starting with 3,000 entries.

 Apple's software enabled AAC encoded pod casts to use chapters, bookmarks, external links, and synchronized images displayed on iPod screens or in the iTunes artwork viewer.


Two days after release of the program, Apple reported one million pod cast subscriptions.


iTunes Pod cast directory lists top 100 pod casts based on the number of new subscriptions in a given 24-hour period, which explains the wild fluctuations in top-20 panel rankings, initially suspected to be an active count of total number of pod cast subscribers.


Some pod casters found that exposure to iTunes' huge number of downloader’s threatened to make great demands on their bandwidth and related expenses. 

Possible solutions were proposed, including the addition of a content delivery system, such as Akamai; a peer-to-peer solution, BitTorrent; or use of free hosting services, such as those offered by Ourmedia, BlipMedia and the Internet Archive.


There's no charge to download the pod casts.

Pod casting is a term coined to describe making audio files available for download through RSS feeds.

Pod casting is being used as a way to distribute weblogs, radio broadcasts and other content.
What business models can you use with your new pod cast recording?


1.) Audio CD (user pays shipping)

2.) Audio CD (sell CD)

3.) Audio CD (package with transcripts and/or workbook)

4.) Audio CD (bundle with existing product

5.) Pod cast (giveaway)

6.) Pod cast (giveaway part – promote full version)

7.) Pod cast (create membership site)

8.) Pod cast (use to enhance blog or website copy)


How can you create a pod cast?


1.) Just talk about a subject (at least prepare an outline first)

2.) Read your articles

3.) Read your e-books (audio – by chapters)

4.) Read your blog post

5.) Read your sales copy

6.) Read other people’s articles

7.) Record/edit interviews with experts


What can you package with your pod cast to enhance the perceived value?


1.) Create transcripts of your recording

2.) Create a ‘workbook’ to go with your recording

3.) Collect articles on the subject of your recording and publish a report.

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