A Brief History Of The Internet And Important Web Terms

The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface.

The World Wide Web is often abbreviated as the Web or WWW.
 
The World Wide Web was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee of the European Particle Physics Lab (CERN) in Switzerland.

The initial purpose of the Web was to use networked hypertext to facilitate communication among its members, who were located in several countries.

Word was soon spread beyond CERN, and a rapid growth in the number of both developers and users ensued.

In addition to hypertext, the Web began to incorporate graphics, video, and sound.



 The use of the Web has reached global proportions and has become a defining aspect of human culture in an amazingly short period of time.

Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web.

Internet protocols are sets of rules that allow for intermachine (inter Computer) communication on the Internet.

The following is a sample of major protocols accessible on the Web:

E-mail (Simple Mail Transport Protocol or SMTP)
Distributes electronic messages and files to one or more electronic mailboxes

Telnet (Telnet Protocol)
Facilitates login to a computer host to execute commands

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Transfers text or binary files between an FTP server and client

Usenet (Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP)
Distributes Usenet news articles derived from topical discussions on newsgroups

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
Transmits hyptertext over networks. This is the protocol of the Web.
Many other protocols are available on the Web.

To name just one example, the Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) allows users to place a telephone call over the Web.

The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols.

This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment.

Once upon a time, it was necessary to be conversant in these protocols within separate, command-level environments.

The Web gathers these protocols together into a single system.

 Because of this feature, and because of the Web's ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages, the Web is by far the most popular component of the Internet.

HYPERTEXT AND LINKS: THE MOTION OF THE WEB

The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its means of information retrieval. HyperText is a document containing words that connect to other documents.

These words are called links and are selectable by the user.

A single hypertext document can contain links to many documents. In the context of the Web, words or graphics may serve as links to other documents, images, video, and sound.

Links may or may not follow a logical path, as each connection is created by the author of the source document.

Overall, the Web contains a complex virtual web of connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos, and sounds.

Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language called HyperText Markup Language, or HTML.

With HTML, tags are placed within the text to accomplish document formatting, visual features such as font size, italics and bold, and the creation of hypertext links.

Graphics may also be incorporated into an HTML document.

HTML is an evolving language, with new tags being added as each upgrade of the language is developed and released.

For example, visual formatting features are now often separated from the HTML document and placed into Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

This has several advantages, including the fact that an external style sheet can centrally control the formatting of multiple documents.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), led by Web founder Tim Berners-Lee, coordinates the efforts of standardizing HTML.

The W3C now calls the language XHTML and considers it to be an application of the XML language standard.

PAGES ON THE WEB

The World Wide Web consists of files, called pages or Web pages, containing information and links to resources throughout the Internet.

Web pages can be created by user activity. For example, if you visit a Web search engine and enter keywords on the topic of your choice, a page will be created containing the results of your search.

 In fact, a growing amount of information found on the Web today is served from databases, creating temporary Web pages "on the fly" in response to user queries.

Access to Web pages may be accomplished by:
  1. Entering an Internet address and retrieving a page directly
  2. Browsing through pages and selecting links to move from one page to another
  3. Searching through subject directories linked to organized collections of Web pages
  4. Entering a search statement at a search engine to retrieve pages on the topic of your choice

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