Cultivation And Production Of Citrus (ORANGE) In Agriculture

Botanical name:   Citrus  spp
Family:  Ruta ceae
Origin:   Asia
VARIETIES
1.   Sweet orange (citrus sinensis) 7m by 7m 
2.   Sour orange (citrus aurantium) 7m by 7m 
3.   Tangerine (citrus nobilis)  (citrus reticulanta) 7m by 7m 
4.   Shad dock: (citrus maxima) 6m by 6m 
5.   Grape (citrus paradisi) 8.1m by 8.1m 
6.   Lime (citrus aurantifolia) 8.1m by 8.1m 
7.   Sweet lime (citrus limetta) 8.1m by 8.1m 
The following are to be considered in selecting site for citrus
Citrus grow well in tropical and sub-tropical climate.
The plant requires moisture because its main product is water based.
Excessive moisture is not good because it makes fruit to be over sized/ puffy.
CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS
Rainfall – 1000 mm- 2000mm evenly distributed over at least a month for citrus at the time of flowering and fruiting.
Temperature: 150c – 550 for growth and optimum for vegetative growth 290c-29.40c temperature for ripening is 12.80c – 18.30c
SOIL REQUIREMENTS
Well drained, deep, loamy soil not too acidic is required. Water logging area must be avoided.
LAND PREPARATION
Citrus does not require shade in the field, so trees that can provide shade should be cut.
METHOD OF PROPAGATION
By seed (sexual or vegetative propagation)
POST PLANTING OPERATION
Post planning operation is the same as that of cocoa
MATURITY PERIOD: it is between 3-7 years
HARVESTING.
1.   Fruits are easily perishable therefore they should be harvested as soon as they mature
2.   Care must be taking during harvesting to avoid damage to the fruits
3.   Harvesting knife is used in harvesting citrus
USE
1.   It is used as drink (food)
DISEASE OF CITRUS
Citrus diseases may be caused by any of the group pathogen. The diseases of citrus are as follow.
1.   Tristeza (viral disease)
CONTROL
  Plant resistant variety
2.   Gummosis – (fungi disease)
Control – spray with appropriate fungicide
Causative organism: phytophthera citrophthora
3.   Scab (fungi disease)
 Control: Proper farm sanitation and use plant resistant variety
PESTS OF CITRUS
1.   Purple scale
2.   Mealy bug
3.   Aphids
4.   Fruit moths
5.   Leaf hoppers

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